Appendix 3.4             Combination of Theme-Rheme and Participant Identification and Tracking Analyses for “Retardation Methods” Text

 

 

RETARDATION METHODS

INTRODUCTION

1.

For many years

neutralised

neutralised

 

specified --t non-particular

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

 

 

initial experiential

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

fixed wing aircraft

relied purely on

wheel brakes

to retard

--t generic unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

their forward movement

after

landing.

Over the years,

--t specified - asserting

 

specified --t non-particular

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora facet meronymy-constitution

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

initial experiential

Rheme

 

 

Theme

 

 

advancements

in design

and the introduction

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

single within-group---esphora extension

no-referent---addition

single within-group---esphora extension

non-initial topical

non-initial topical

non-initial topical

 

 

 

 

 

of new materials

has led to

increased capabilities

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

and carrying capacities,

which

has inevitably led to

faster and heavier aircraft.

--t specified unmarked

 

 

specified difference -- comparison-quality - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-final

simple topical

 

clause-complex-final

 

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

Increased flying speeds

have led

in turn to

specified comparison-quality -- difference asserting -

 

 

single preceding---anaphora experiential

 

 

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

higher landing speeds,

which

has increased

specified comparison-quality -- difference asserting -

 

 

single preceding---anaphora experiential

 

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

the burden

placed on

the wheel brakes.

specified --t asserting -

 

specified --t asserting -

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

Rheme

 

 

2.

Without some form

of additional assistance

 

generic --t non-particular

specified --t unmarked

 

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

 

experiential initial

experiential initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

in retarding

the aircraft,

the wheel brakes

 

--t specified - asserting

specified --t asserting -

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

experiential initial

experiential initial

non-initial topical

 

 

 

 

 

would need to be applied in

a heavy and sustained manner

leading to

 

specified --t unmarked

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

 

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

rapid wear

of the brakes

and tyres,

specified --t unmarked

specified --t asserting -

specified --t asserting -

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

Rheme

 

 

 

 

 

or

runways

would need to be extended

 

generic --t asserting -

 

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

initial textual

non-initial topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

to unacceptable lengths.

To help reduce

brake

specified --t unmarked

 

generic --t asserting -

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-complex-final

initial experiential

initial experiential

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

and tyre wear

and

to maintain

generic --t asserting -

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

initial experiential

non-initial textual

non-initial experiential

 

 

 

 

 

runways

at an acceptable length,

additional retardation methods

generic --t asserting -

specified --t unmarked

specified --t particular

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora inflexion

experiential non-initial

experiential non-initial

non-initial topical

 

 

 

 

 

based on

the principle

of aerodynamic braking

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

 

non-initial topical

non-initial topical

 

 

 

 

 

have been devised to supplement

the wheel brakes.

3.

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

Methods

of emergency retardation

have also been devised to arrest

--t generic - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

the forward motion

of the aircraft

on the ground

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora experiential

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-internal

Rheme

 

 

 

 

in the event

of failure

of the wheel brake system

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora experiential

clause-internal

clause-final

clause-final

 

 

 

 

 

or

during an aborted take-off

where

normal braking methods

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

clause-internal

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

would be

inadequate.

WHEEL BRAKES

4.

Wheel brakes

 

 

neutralised

 

generic --t asserting -

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

simple topical

 

Rheme

 

 

Theme

 

 

form

the primary method

of retarding

 

--t specified - asserting

generic --t - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

 

the forward movement

of most aircraft

when

--t specified - asserting

specified --t particular

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

 

on the ground

and,

in common with

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-final

textual initial

 

 

Theme

 

 

most braking systems,

they

rely on

--t specified particular

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

experiential non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

the principle

of energy conversion

for their operation.

--t specified - asserting

generic --t - asserting

--t specified - asserting

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora extension

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

 

 

 

In this method,

friction

is used to convert

--t specified proximate

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

no-referent---addition

 

experiential initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

the forward motion

of the aircraft

(kinetic energy)

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-internal

Rheme

 

 

 

 

into heat,

which

is then dissipated,

to the surrounding air.

--t generic - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

--t generic - asserting

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-final

simple topical

 

clause-complex-final

 

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

5.

Wheel brakes

and their associated operating systems

 

--t generic - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution facet

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

are covered

in Section 3 Chapters 1 and 3

of this Volume.

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified proximate

 

single non-verbal---exophora

single non-verbal---exophora

 

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

 

AERODYNAMIC BRAKING

6.

The term

aerodynamic braking

neutralised

 

--t asserting - generic

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

no-referent---addition

 

 

simple topical

Simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

means

using

the airflow

to assist in

 

 

generic --t asserting -

 

 

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

 

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

retardation

by selectively increasing

the amount

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

clause-final

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

 

of drag

produced by

the aircraft.

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

This increase in

drag

is normally applied,

--t specified proximate

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

in conjunction with

operation of

the wheel brakes,

 

generic --t - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

clause-final

 

Rheme

 

 

 

immediately after

landing

or

 

--t generic - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

during

an aborted take-off

and

is produced by

 

--t specified unmarked

 

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

 

clause-internal

clause-final

textual simple

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

one,

or sometimes

a combination of

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-internal

Rheme

 

 

 

 

more than one

, of the following methods:

• Flying control surfaces.

specified difference -- comparison-quantity non-interlocuters

--t specified proximate

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

single beyond-group---cataphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

 

• Thrust reversal.

• Brake parachute.

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

 

 

 

 

• Angle of Attack.

Flying control surfaces

7

Flying control surfaces

--t specified unmarked

neutralised

 

specified --t asserting -

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

 

simple topical

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

which

can be used to help retard

the aircraft

 

 

--t generic - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

through aerodynamic braking

are:

• Airbrakes.

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-final

 

 

 

 

 

 

• Elevators

• Flaps.

Tailerons

• Spoilers.

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreplanes

8

As

the airbrakes,

--t specified unmarked

 

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

flaps

or spoilers

are moved out

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

into the airflow

they

cause

--t generic - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

an increase in

drag.

The further

--t specified unmarked

--t generic - asserting

specified difference -- comparison-quality - asserting

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-relational

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

experiential initial

Rheme

 

Theme

 

 

into the airflow

they

protrude,

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

experiential non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

the greater

the drag

produced

specified difference -- comparison-quality - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-relational

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

experiential initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

and,

just as

in flight,

any increase in

 

 

generic --t asserting -

--t specified unmarked

 

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

no-referent---addition

textual initial

 

experiential non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

drag

slows down

the forward progress

--t generic - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

of the aircraft.

It

should be noted that

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

only the airbrake

is specially designed to slow

the aircraft;

specified --t asserting -

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple topical

 

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

for the other controls

this

is

specified general-comparison difference - asserting

--t specified proximate

 

single preceding---anaphora superordination-class-subclass hyperonymy---subclass-preceding

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora substitution

 

experiential initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

only a secondary function.

The flying control surfaces

which

--t specified unmarked

--t specified – asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

clause-complex-final

simple topical

simple topical

Rheme

Theme

Theme

 

 

provide

aerodynamic braking

are shown

at Fig 1.

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single non-verbal---exophora

 

clause-final

 

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

Rheme

 

 

 

Thrust reversal

9.

Thrust reversal

is used to assist in

neutralised

 

generic --t asserting -

 

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

 

simple topical

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

aircraft retardation

by using

engine power

generic --t asserting -

 

generic --t asserting -

single preceding---anaphora experiential

 

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

 

clause-internal

Rheme

 

 

 

 

as a deceleration force.

10.

Propeller driven aircraft.

On propeller driven aircraft,

specified --t unmarked

 

neutralised

--t generic - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-complex-final

 

 

experiential initial

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

thrust reversal

is achieved by reversing

the pitch

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single within-group---esphora facet meronymy-constitution

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

of the propeller blades

so that

the thrust generated

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

by the propeller

is directed

forwards

instead of

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

 

 

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

rearwards,

the degree

of braking assistance

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single within-group---esphora measure meronymy-relational

no-referent---addition

clause-final

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

being controlled by

use of

the engine throttle lever(s).

 

--t generic - asserting

specified --t - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora extension

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

 

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

 

 

11.

Turbo-jet aircraft.

Thrust reversal

on turbo-jet aircraft

 

neutralised

--t specified unmarked

specified --t unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

 

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

is achieved by changing

the direction

of the exhaust gas stream

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora facet meronymy-relational

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

 

through more than 90 degrees,

but

less than 180 degrees.

specified comparison-quantity -- difference asserting -

 

specified difference -- comparison-quantity - asserting

single preceding---anaphora measure meronymy-constitution

 

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution measure

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

One method

of deflecting

the exhaust gas stream

--t specified particular

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple topical

simple topical

simple topical

Theme

 

 

 

 

is shown

at Fig 2.

During flight

 

--t specified unmarked

generic --t asserting -

 

single non-verbal---exophora

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-complex-final

experiential initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

the bucket-type doors

are held

in the open position

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

topical non-initial

 

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

as shown

in Fig 2A,

allowing

rearward passage

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

single non-verbal---exophora

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-final

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

 

 


of the exhaust gas stream.

When

braking assistance

--t specified - asserting

 

--t generic - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-complex-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

is

required,

the doors

are moved into

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

the gas stream

by hydraulic

or pneumatic jacks

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora derivation

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

Rheme

 

 

 

 

as shown

in Fig 2B,

uncovering

apertures

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t generic - asserting

 

single non-verbal---exophora

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-final

 

clause-final

 

 

 

 

 

 

through which

the gas

is deflected

--t specified non-interlocuters

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

 


in a slightly forward direction

to give

'thrust reversal'.

Brake parachute

12.

--t specified unmarked

 

specified --t unique--i

neutralised

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

 


 

Brake parachutes

are normally to be found on

fast jet aircraft

specified --t unmarked

 

specified --t unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

no-referent---addition

simple topical

 

clause-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

and

produce

aerodynamic drag

to assist

the wheel brakes

 

 

specified --t unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

textual simple

 

clause-internal

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

in retarding

the aircraft

during its landing run.

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora extension

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

A typical brake parachute installation

consists of

the parachute assembly

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

in housing

with associated release/ jettison controls and mechanisms

(Fig 3).

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

single non-verbal---exophora

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

13.

The parachute assembly.

The parachute assembly

 

neutralised

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

consists of

the main parachute,

the auxiliary (or drogue) parachute

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

and the streamer cable.

A ring

on the free end

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

no-referent---addition

single within-group---esphora meronymy-constitution part

clause-complex-final

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

of the streamer cable

connects

the parachute assembly

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

to the airframe

through a release unit.

The drogue

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora derivation

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

may be

a small, spring-loaded version

of the main parachute

or

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

 

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-internal

clause-final

textual simple

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

connected to

a rigid conical cap,

which

forms

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

 

clause-final

textual simple

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the tip of

the a/c tail cone

during flight.

--t specified - asserting

--t specified – asserting

--t generic - asserting

single within-group---esphora part meronymy-constitution

context-of-culture---homophora single

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

 

 

 

The main parachute

and streamer cable

are packed into

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

a canvas bag

or light alloy canister

(hopper),

whilst

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

textual initial

Rheme

 

 

Theme

 

 

the drogue

may be packed with

the main parachute

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

and streamer cable

or

may be located

separately.

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

 

clause-final

textual simple

 

clause-complex-final

 

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

The main parachute canopy

is made of

vented nylon panels

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

 

no-referent---addition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

or ribbons,

connected to

the streamer cable

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-final

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

 

by nylon rigging lines

and a connector block.

14. The parachute housing.

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

neutralised

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

 

A typical brake parachute housing

is located

as near as possible to

--t specified unmarked

 

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

 

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

the end of

the rear fuselage.

The housing

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

single within-group---esphora meronymy-constitution part

context-of-culture---homophora single

single preceding---anaphora derivation

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

comprises of

a compartment

designed to accommodate

the parachute assembly

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

 

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

or hopper

with a spring loaded door

or detachable cap,

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

 

 

 

 

 

which

closes off

the opening

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

single part meronymy-constitution within-group---esphora

textual simple

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

to the compartment.

15.

The release and jettison controls and mechanisms.

--t specified - asserting

 

neutralised

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

no-referent---addition

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Control of

the brake parachute

is normally effected mechanically by

--t generic - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora extension

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

a Teleflex

or Bowden control cable system,

but

it

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified non-interlocuters

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

clause-internal

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

Rheme

 

Theme

 

 

may be achieved electrically or,

on some aircraft,

by a combination

 

specified --t non-particular

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

 

of both methods.

Cockpit selection

for both the release

specified --t asserting inclusive

--t specified unmarked

--t specified asserting inclusive

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

single within-group---esphora enhancement

single within-group---esphora extension

clause-complex-final

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

and jettison of

the brake parachute

is usually made from

--t specified asserting inclusive

--t specified - asserting

 

single extension within-group---esphora

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

 

 

 

 

a single control,

except for

combination systems

where

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-final

clause-internal

clause-final

textual initial

Rheme

 

 

Theme

 

 

the parachute

is released mechanically by

a lever

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

no-referent---addition

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

or handle

and

a separate switch

is used to operate

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

an electrical jettison unit.

The cockpit control

is normally guarded to prevent

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

inadvertent operation.

16.

Principles of operation

When

--t specified unmarked

 

neutralised

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

textual initial

Rheme

 

 

Theme

 

 

'release'

or 'stream'

is selected at

--t specified particular

specified --t particular

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

the cockpit control,

the door

or end cap

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-final

simple topical

simple topical

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

of the compartment housing

the brake parachute

opens to release

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

 

 

 

 

the drogue

into the airstream

as shown in

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

clause-internal

clause-final

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

Fig 4A.

17.

The drag

of the drogue parachute

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

single non-verbal---exophora

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-complex-final

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

withdraws

the main parachute

from its pack

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

along with a streamer cable,

as

the cable

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

is pulled

taut

the main parachute

develops (opens) to provide

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

the braking drag

as shown

in Fig 4B.

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

single non-verbal---exophora

clause-final

 

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

 

 

 

NOTES

(1)

On brake parachute installations

fitted with a door,

 

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

experiential initial

experiential initial

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the door

is usually designed to hinge open

under the influence of

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single within-group---esphora extension

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

a damped spring

when

the parachute release control

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

clause-final

initial textual

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

is operated,

allowing

the spring loaded drogue parachute

to deploy

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

 

 

clause-final

 

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

and

withdraw

the main parachute.

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple textual

 

clause-complex-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

(2)

On those installations

where

the parachute housing

 

--t specified distant

 

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

experiential initial

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

Theme

 

 

 

is closed off by

a cap,

the cap

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-final

topical non-initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

is connected to

the drogue chute

by nylon cords.

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

 

 

When

the parachute release control

is operated

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

 

on this type of installation,

the cap

is completely released from

--t specified proximate

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

the airframe structure

and,

as

it

--t specified - asserting

 

 

--t specified non-interlocuters

single preceding---anaphora derivation

 

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

clause-final

textual initial

textual initial

topical non-initial

Rheme

Theme

Theme

 

 


 

is carried away by

the airflow,

it

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-internal

topical non-initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

withdraws

the drogue chute

which

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-final

textual simple

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

withdraws

the main parachute.

18.

Once

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

 

clause-complex-final

 

textual initial

 

Rheme

 

Theme

 

 


the aircraft

has slowed to

a speed

--t specified - asserting