Appendix 3.3 Combination of Theme-Rheme and Participant Identification and Tracking Analyses for Secuitiy Text

 

7.1

Introduction

Security measures

must be incorporated into

 

neutralised

specified --t - asserting

 

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

 

simple topical

 

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

computer systems

whenever

they

specified --t - asserting

 

specified --t non-interlocuters

no-referent---addition

 

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora substitution

clause-final

initial textual

non-initial topical

Rheme

Theme

 

 

are

potential targets

for malicious or mischievous attacks.

 

specified --t non-particular

specified --t non-particular

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

 

This

is

especially so

for systems

--t specified proximate

 

 

specified --t - asserting

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora substitution

 

 

no-referent---addition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

clause-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

that

handle

financial transactions

or confidential, classified or other information

 

 

specified --t non-particular

specified --t non-particular

 

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

whose secrecy

and integrity

are

critical.

--t specified - asserting

specified --t asserting -

 

 

single preceding---anaphora alienable meronymy-constitution

single preceding---anaphora alienable meronymy-constitution

 

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

 

 


 

In Figure 7.1,

we

summarize

specified --t non-particular

specified --t interlocuters

 

single non-verbal---exophora

single non-verbal---exophora

 

initial experiential

non-initial topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

the evolution

of security needs

in computer systems

--t specified - asserting

specified --t non-particular

specified --t - asserting

single within-group---esphora facet meronymy-constitution

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

Rheme

 

 

since

they

first

 

specified --t non-interlocuters

 

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

textual initial

topical non-initial

non-initial interpersonal

Theme

 

 

arose

with the advent

of shared data

 

--t specified - asserting

specified --t - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

in multi-user timesharing systems

of the 1960s and 70s.

Today

specified --t non-particular

--t specified - asserting

specified --t asserting -

no-referent---addition

context-of-culture---homophora single

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

textual initial

 

Theme

 

 

the advent

of wide-area, open distributed systems

has resulted in

--t specified - asserting

specified --t non-particular

 

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

no-referent---addition

 

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 


 

a wide range

of security issues.

The need

--t specified unmarked

specified --t - asserting

specified --t asserting -

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

single within-group---esphora elaboration

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

simple topical

Rheme

Theme

 

 

to protect

the integrity

and privacy

 

specified --t asserting -

--t specified - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

simple topical

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

 

of information

and other resources

belonging to

--t specified - asserting

specified difference general-comparison - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora attitudinal

 

simple topical

simple topical

simple topical

 

 

 

individuals

and organizations

is pervasive

in both the physical

specified --t - asserting

specified --t - asserting

 

specified --t asserting inclusive

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

simple topical

simple topical

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

and the digital world.

It

arises from

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the desire

to share

resources.

specified --t asserting -

 

specified --t asserting -

single within-group---esphora elaboration

 

single context-of-culture---homophora

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 


 

In the physical world,

organizations

adopt

specified --t asserting -

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora no-poles---cycle

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

experiential initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

 

security policies

that

provide for

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

the sharing

of resources

within specified limits.

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified non-particular

single preceding---anaphora derivation

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora enhancement

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

 

For example,

a company

may permit

entry to

generalized

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

its buildings

for its employees

and for accredited visitors.

specified --t - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

single preceding---anaphora part meronymy-constitution

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

A security policy

for documents

may specify

groups of

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

specified --t - asserting

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

simple topical

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

employees

who

can access

--t specified unmarked

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

classes

of documents

or

generic --t asserting -

specified --t asserting -

 

single within-group---esphora relational hyponymy---class-preceding

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-final

textual initial

Rheme

Theme

 

 

it

may be defined for

individual documents

specified --t non-interlocuters

 

generic --t asserting -

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

single preceding---anaphora derivation

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

and users.

Security policies

are enforced with

generic --t asserting -

--t generic - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora experiential

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the help

of security mechanisms.

For example,

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t generic - asserting

single within-group---esphora elaboration

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

textual initial

Rheme

Theme

 

 

access to

a building

may be controlled by

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single within-group---esphora extension

no-referent---addition

 

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

 

 

 

 

 

a reception clerk,

who

issues

--t specified unmarked

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

badges

to accredited visitors,

and

enforced by

specified --t unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

clause-internal

clause-final

textual simple

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 


 

a security guard

or by electronic door locks.

Access to

--t specified unmarked

specified --t unmarked

--t generic - asserting

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

single within-group---esphora extension

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

simple topical

Rheme

Theme

 

 

paper documents

is usually controlled

by concealment

--t specified unmarked

 

--t generic - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

simple topical

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

and restricted distribution.

In the electronic world,

the distinction

--t generic - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t specified - asserting

context-of-culture---homophora single

single preceding---anaphora experiential

single within-group---esphora elaboration

clause-complex-final

initial experiential

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

between security policies

and mechanisms

remains

important;

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

 

 

no-referent---addition

no-referent---addition

 

 

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

without it,

it

would be

difficult

to determine

--t specified non-interlocuters

generalized

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

 

 

 

initial experiential

simple topical

 

clause internal

clause final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

whether

a particular system

was

secure.

Security policies

 

--t specified particular

 

 

--t generic - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

Theme

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

are

independent of

the technology

used,

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

 

clause-internal

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 


 

just as

the provision

of a lock

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single within-group---esphora enhancement

no-referent---addition

textual initial

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

Theme

 

 

on a door

does not ensure

the security

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora alienable meronymy-constitution

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

of a building

unless

there

is

a policy

--t specified unmarked

 

generalized

 

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

 

 

 

no-referent---addition

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

for its use

(for example,

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora superordination-class-subclass hyperonymy---subclass-preceding

no-referent---addition

clause-final

clause-internal

 

 

 

that

the door

will be locked

 

--t generic - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

 

 

whenever

nobody

is guarding

the entrance).

 

generalized

 

--t generic - asserting

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora meronymy-constitution part

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-complex-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

The security mechanisms

that

we

--t specified - asserting

 

--t specified interlocuters

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

context-of-culture---homophora single

simple topical

 

simple topical

 

 

 

 


 

shall describe

do not

in themselves

ensure

 

 

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

 

 

clause-internal

 

 

 

Rheme

 

 

 

the security

of a system.

In Section 7.1.2,

--t specified - asserting

--t generic - asserting

specified --t non-particular

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

no-referent---addition

single non-verbal---exophora

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

experiential initial

 

Theme

 

 

we

outline

the requirements

--t specified interlocuters

 

--t specified - asserting

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

single elaboration within-group---esphora

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 

for security

in various simple electronic commerce scenarios,

illustrating

--t generic - asserting

specified --t non-particular

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

clause-final

 

 

 

 

 

the need

for policies

in that context.

--t specified - asserting

specified --t unmarked

--t specified distant

single elaboration within-group---esphora

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

single preceding---anaphora experiential

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

 

 

 

As an initial example,

consider

the security

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

initial textual

non-initial topical

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

of a networked file server

whose interface

is accessible

--t specified unmarked

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora alienable meronymy-constitution

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

to clients.

To ensure that

access control

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single within-group---esphora extension

clause-complex-final

simple topical

simple topical

Rheme

Theme

 

 

to files

is maintained,

there

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

simple topical

 

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

would need to be

a policy

that

all requests

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified total-nominal

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-final

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

must include

an authenticated user identity.

The provision

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

single within-group---esphora extension

 

clause-complex-final

topical initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

of mechanisms

for the protection

of data

--t generic - asserting

--t specified - asserting

--t generic - asserting

single within-group---esphora superordination-class-subclass hyponymy---class-preceding

single within-group---esphora extension

no-referent---addition

topical initial

topical initial

topical initial

 

 

 

and other computer- based resources

and for

securing

generic general-comparison difference - asserting

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

 

single within-group---esphora extension

topical initial

 

topical non-initial

 

 

 

networked transactions

is

the concern

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

no-referent---addition

 

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-constitution

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 


 

of this chapter.

We

shall describe

--t specified proximate

--t specified interlocuters

 

single non-verbal---exophora

single non-verbal---exophora

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the mechanisms

that

enable

--t specified - asserting

 

 

multiple---ambiguous within-group---esphora extension

 

 

clause-final

simple topical

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

 

security policies

to be enforced

in distributed systems.

specified --t unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

Rheme

 

Rheme

 

 

The mechanisms

we

shall describe

--t specified - asserting

--t specified interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

simple topical

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

 

are

strong enough

to resist

the most determined attacks.

 

 

 

--t specified asserting quality

 

 

 

single preceding---anaphora no-poles---cycle

 

clause-internal

 

clause-complex-final

 

Rheme

 

 

The distinction between

security policies

and security mechanisms

--t specified - asserting

--t generic - asserting

--t generic - asserting

single within-group---esphora elaboration

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

simple topical

simple topical

simple topical

Theme

 

 

is

helpful

when

designing

secure systems,

 

 

 

 

--t specified unmarked

 

 

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

clause-internal

simple textual

 

clause-final

 

Rheme

Theme

 

Rheme

 


 

but

it

is often

difficult

to be

confident

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

textual initial

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

clause-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

that

a given set

of security mechanisms

 

--t specified unmarked

--t specified - asserting

 

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

textual initial

topical non-initial

topical non-initial

Theme

 

 

fully implements

the desired security policies.

In Section 2.3.3,

 

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single non-verbal---exophora

 

clause-complex-final

experiential initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

we

introduced

a security model

--t specified interlocuters

 

--t specified unmarked

context-of-culture---homophora single

 

no-referent---addition

topical non-initial

 

clause-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

that

is designed to help in analysing

the potential security threats

 

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single within-group---esphora meronymy-constitution facet

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

in a distributed system.

We

can summarize

--t specified unmarked

--t specified interlocuters

 

no-referent---addition

single context-of-culture---homophora

 

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

 

Theme

 

 

 

the security model

of Chapter 2

as follows:

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unrestricted

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single non-verbal---exophora

 

clause-internal

clause-internal

clause-final

Rheme

 


 

- Processes

encapsulate

resources

(such as

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

simple topical

 

clause-internal

 

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

programming language- level objects

and other system-defined resources)

and

--t specified unmarked

specified general-comparison semblance-similarity non-interlocuters

 

single preceding---anaphora elaboration

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

 

clause-internal

clause-final

textual simple

 

Theme

 

 

allow

clients

to access

them

 

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

no-referent---addition

 

preceding---anaphora multiple---ambiguous substitution

 

clause-internal

 

clause-internal

 

Rheme

 

 

through their interfaces.

Principals

(users

--t specified - asserting

--t specified unmarked

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora alienable meronymy-relational

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-complex-final

initial topical

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

or other processes)

can be explicitly authorized to operate

on resources.

specified general-comparison difference - asserting

 

--t generic unmarked

single preceding---anaphora attitudinal

 

no-referent---addition

topical non-initial

 

clause-complex-final

 

 

Rheme

 

 

Resources

must be protected against

unauthorized access.

generic --t - asserting

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora derivation

simple topical

 

clause-complex-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

 

- Processes

interact through

a network

that

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified unmarked

 

no-referent---addition

 

no-referent---addition

 

simple topical

 

clause-final

simple topical

Theme

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

is shared by

many users.

Enemies

 

--t specified particular

--t specified unmarked

 

single preceding---anaphora inflexion

no-referent---addition

 

clause-complex-final

topical initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

(attackers)

can access

the network.

--t specified unmarked

 

--t specified - asserting

single preceding---anaphora experiential

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

non-initial topical

 

clause-complex-final

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

They

can copy or attempt to read

any message

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

--t specified unrestricted-2

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

no-referent---addition

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

transmitted

through the network

and

 

--t specified - asserting

 

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

 

clause-final

textual initial

 

Rheme

Theme

 

 

they

can inject

arbitrary messages,

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

--t specified unmarked

single preceding---anaphora substitution

 

no-referent---addition

topical non-initial

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

addressed to

any destination

and purporting to come from

 

--t specified unrestricted-2

 

 

no-referent---addition

 

 

clause-internal

 

 

Rheme

 

 


 

any source,

into the network.

That security model

--t specified unrestricted-2

--t specified - asserting

--t specified distant

no-referent---addition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

clause-internal

clause-complex-final

simple topical

 

Theme

 

 

identifies

the features

of distributed systems

 

--t specified - asserting

--t generic - asserting

 

single within-group---esphora facet meronymy-constitution

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-internal

clause-final

 

Rheme

 

 

that

expose

them

 

 

--t specified non-interlocuters

 

 

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora substitution

simple topical

 

clause-internal

Theme

 

Rheme

 

 

to attacks.

In this chapter,

we

--t generic - asserting

--t specified proximate

--t specified interlocuters

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

single non-verbal---exophora

context-of-culture---homophora single

clause-complex-final

experiential initial

topical non-initial

 

Theme

 

 

shall detail

these attacks

and

the security techniques

 

--t specified proximate

 

--t specified - asserting

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

 

clause-final

 

clause-final

 

Rheme

 

 

 

 

that

are available for defeating

them.

 

 

specified --t non-interlocuters

 

 

single preceding---anaphora substitution

simple topical

 

clause-complex-final

Theme

 

Rheme