Appendix 2.3             Participant Analysis of ‘Amplifier Noise’ text

 

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Text

Tracking

Identification

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AMPLIFER NOISE

no-referent---addition

neutralised

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In almost every area of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding superordination-class-subclass

generic general-comparison difference non-particular

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measurement

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

4

the ultimate limit of

multiple---ambiguous within-group---esphora measure meronymy-relational

specified --t asserting quality

5

detectability of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding superordination-class-subclass

generic --t unmarked

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weak signals

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

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is set by

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noise -

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

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unwanted signals

no-referent---addition

specified --t non-particular

10

that obscure

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the desired signal.

single preceding---anaphora role-reversal---converse

--t specified - asserting

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Even if

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the quantity being measured

single within-group---esphora alienable meronymy-relational

--t specified - asserting

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is not

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weak,

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the presence of

single within-group---esphora elaboration

specified --t - asserting

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noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

generic --t - asserting

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degrades

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the accuracy of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding relational

specified --t - asserting

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the measurement

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

--t specified - asserting

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. Some forms of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified particular

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noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

generic --t - asserting

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are

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unavoidable

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(e.g.

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real fluctuations in

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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the quantity being measured

single preceding---anaphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified - asserting

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), and

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they

single preceding---anaphora substitution

--t specified non-interlocuters

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can be overcome only with

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the techniques of

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified - asserting

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signal averaging

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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and

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bandwidth narrowing

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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, which

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we

single non-verbal---exophora

--t specified interlocuters

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will discuss

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in chapter 15.

non-verbal---exophora single

specified --t unmarked

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Other forms of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding relational

specified general-comparison difference asserting -

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noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

generic --t - asserting

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(e.g.

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radiofrequency interference and

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

43

"ground loops"

no-referent---addition

--t specified unique--i

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) can be reduced

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or eliminated by

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a variety of

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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tricks,

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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including

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filtering

no-referent---addition

--t generic unmarked

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and

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careful attention to

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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wiring configuration

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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and parts location

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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. Finally,

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there

single beyond-group---cataphora elaboration

generalized

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is

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noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

specified --t asserting -

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that arises

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in the amplification

multiple---ambiguous within-group---esphora derivation

--t specified - asserting

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itself,

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

--t specified non-interlocuters

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and

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it

single preceding---anaphora substitution

--t specified non-interlocuters

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can be reduced

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the techniques of

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified - asserting

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low-noise amplifier design.

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

66

Although

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the techniques of

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified - asserting

68

signal averaging

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

--t specified unmarked

69

can often be used

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 to rescue

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a signal

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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buried in

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noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

generic --t - asserting

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, it

no-referent---addition

generalized

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pays to

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 begin with

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a system

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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that is

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free of

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preventable interference

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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and that possesses

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the lowest amplifier noise predictable.

single preceding---anaphora inflexion

specified --t asserting quality

83

We

single non-verbal---exophora

--t interlocuters specified

84

will begin

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by talking about

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the origins and

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

generic --t - asserting

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characteristics of

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

generic --t - asserting

88

the different kinds of

single within-group---esphora hyperonymy---subclass-preceding relational

specified difference general-comparison - asserting

89

noise

multiple---ambiguous preceding---anaphora experiential

--t specified unmarked

90

that afflict

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electronic circuits.

no-referent---addition

generic --t asserting -

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Then

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we

single non-verbal---exophora

--t specified interlocuters

94

will launch into

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a discussion of

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

96

transistor

no-referent---addition

--t specified - asserting

97

and FET noise,

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

98

including

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methods for

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

--t specified - asserting

100

low-noise design with

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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a given signal source,

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

102

and will present

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some design examples.

single preceding---anaphora experiential

--t specified particular

104

After

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a short discussion of

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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noise in

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

specified --t - asserting

107

differential [amplifiers]

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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and feedback amplifiers,

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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we

single non-verbal---exophora

--t specified interlocuters

110

will conclude with

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a section on

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

112

proper grounding and

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

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shielding and

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

114

the elimination of

single within-group---esphora elaboration

--t specified - asserting

115

interference and

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

116

pickup.

no-referent---addition

generic --t unmarked

117

7.11

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Origins and

no-referent---addition

neutralised

119

kinds of

no-referent---addition

neutralised

120

noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

neutralised

121

Since

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the term noise

single preceding---anaphora experiential

--t specified - asserting

123

can be applied to

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124

anything that obscures

single within-group---esphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

generic --t unrestricted

125

a desired signal,

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

126

noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

--t specified - asserting

127

can

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itself

single preceding---anaphora substitution

--t specified non-interlocuters

129

be

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another signal

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

specified general-comparison difference unmarked

131

("interference")

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

132

; most often,

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however,

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we

single non-verbal---exophora

--t specified interlocuters

135

use

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the term

single preceding---anaphora substitution

--t specified - asserting

137

to describe

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"random" noise of

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

139

a physical (often thermal) origin

no-referent---addition

--t specified unmarked

140

. Noise

single preceding---anaphora complete-repetition

generic --t - asserting

141

can be characterized by

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142

its frequency spectrum,

single preceding---anaphora facet meronymy-relational

--t specified unmarked

143

its amplitude distribution,

single preceding---anaphora facet meronymy-relational

--t specified unmarked

144

and the physical mechanism responsible for

single within-group---esphora elaboration

specified --t - asserting

145

its generation.

single preceding---anaphora hyponymy---class-preceding superordination-class-subclass

specified --t unmarked

146

(Acknowledgment: P. Horowitz & W. Hill. 1989. The Art of Electronics. Cambridge: CUP)

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